High Performance Composite Using Tri-Axial Quasi-Three-Dimensional Woven Fabric



Executive Summary

Composite materials are a well-established technology in applications requiring high-performance such as sports, aerospace, or defense. One of the benefits of composites is the ability to tailor materials performance to particular needs and loading conditions. 2D prepregs and non-crimp fabrics (NCFs) are typically used for structural parts and have excellent in-plane performance. Unfortunately, they are also known for poor through-thickness performance and impact resistance. On impact, parts made of thereof may very quickly lose structural integrity due to damage propagating quickly throughout the structure. MSU researchers have developed a new composite material based on a tri-axial quasi-three-dimensional (3A Q3D) fabric which provides better mechanical performance in multi-directional loading conditions. The invention improves delamination and impact resistance over conventional two-dimensional woven fabric while maintaining adequate in-plane stiffness.


Description of Technology

The invention is a composite made from tri-axial quasi-three-dimensional (3A Q3D) fabric. The multiple tri-axial fabric layers are simultaneously manufactured in way where some of the yarns from previous layer interweave with the next layer yarns. In this way, it is possible to better control interlayer interaction and control delamination e.g. design for particular interlayer slippage/damage growth during loading. The innovation can further leverage the usage of different yarns for different loading directions in individual layers, usage of different fibers in different layers (e.g. some layers are designed to be stiff, others to respond in a more ductile manner), as well as the usage of comingled yarns within individual or multiple layers (to further enhance the design freedom for specific loading conditions). 



  • Improved toughness and delamination resistance without the additional weight.
  • Provides constant strength in all directions, which is an improvement over previous biaxial (2A) Q3D woven fabrics that only have strength in two major directions.
  • Better mechanical performance in multi-directional loading conditions
  • Improves delamination and impact resistance over conventional two-dimensional woven fabric while maintaining adequate in-plane stiffness.



  • Complex 2.5D and 3D parts with multi-directional loading conditions
  • Parts that require both structural and ballistic/blast performance
  • Automotive (sports/racing), marine (speed boats), aerospace, defense
  • Soft armors for resisting high-ballistic impact. Protective gear.
  • Piping
  • Sporting goods


Patent Status

Issued US Patent 9,273,933 



Composites Part A article, 2020 "A comparative study of a quasi 3D woven composite with UD and 2D
woven laminates"


Journal of COMPOSITE MATERIALS, Vol. 44, No. 25, 2010, "Assessment of Quasi-Three-Dimensional Composites with Discussions on Fiber Straining and Weaving Effectiveness"



Dahsin Liu, Guojing Li, Chun-Ying Lee, Chian-Fong Yen, Corey Anderson


Tech ID



Patent Information:

For Information, Contact:

Jon Debling
Technology Manager
Michigan State University