Tri-Axial Quasi-Three-Dimensional Woven Fabric




Engineers increasingly use fiber-reinforced composite materials, particularly for automotive, marine, and armor designs, because of high stiffness and strength with low density. Engineers can also tailor the materials’ orthotropic properties to specific applications where certain properties are required in only particular directions of a structure. Laminated structures based on stacking composite layers, however, are susceptible to impact loading that causes delamination, which is separation of layers due to breakage of the composite interface. Once delaminated, projectiles can disintegrate the material by displacing the fibers of individual layers. This poor impact resistance restricts composites from many applications, despite many efforts to understand impact response and improve delamination resistance.


Description of Technology


The invention is a fabric and machine for manufacturing a tri-axial quasi-three-dimensional (3A Q3D) composite. The fabric is similar to triaxial woven laminates, but the layers are interwoven. The 3A Q3D fabric provides constant strength in all directions, which is an improvement over previous biaxial (2A) Q3D woven fabrics that only have strength in two major directions. The invention improves delamination and impact resistance over conventional two-dimensional woven fabric while maintaining adequate in-plane stiffness. It can also be used as soft armors for resisting high-ballistic impact.



  • Composite design for improved toughness and delamination resistance without the additional weight.


Patent Status


US Issued Patent 9,273,933 




Dahsin Liu, Guojing Li, Chun-Ying Lee, Chian-Fong Yen, Corey Anderson


Tech ID




Patent Information:

For Information, Contact:

Jon Debling
Technology Manager
Michigan State University